<Note> This page is still updating. Check back soon for more update.

Cyber Security

Cybersecurity agencies / offices in Singapore

  • Infocomm Media Development Authority

  • Singapore Cybersecurity Consortium

    • Consortium is funded by the National Research Foundation (NRF) and anchored at the National University of Singapore (NUS) for engagement between industry, academia and government agencies to encourage use-inspired research, translation, manpower training and technology awareness in cybersecurity.

  • National Cybersecurity Lab (NCL)

    • NCL is a national cybersecurity lab that provides computing resources, repeatable and controllable experimentation environments, as well as application services.

  • National Cybersecurity R&D Programme

    • NCR seeks to develop R&D expertise and capabilities in cybersecurity for Singapore. It aims to improve the trustworthiness of cyber infrastructures with an emphasis on security, reliability, resiliency and usability.

  • A*STAR Institute for Infocomm Research

    • ASTAR I2R Cybersecurity Department focuses on research area of cyber-physical security, data security, system security vulnerability assessment and security architecture design, etc.

Physical Security

Food Security

Social Security


Symmetric Key

In symmetric key, both the encryption and decryption keys are the same.

  • Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is a type of Rijndael block cipher. [Read more at Wikipedia] AES has now been integrated into many computer (x86 architecture) and mobile (ARM architecture) processors. To name a few prominent are:

    • Intel Coffee Lake processors (2017)

    • Intel Kaby Lake processors (2016)

    • Intel Skylake processors (2015)

    • AMD Zen 2 Ryzen Threadripper 3990X (2020)

    • Qualcomm Snapdragon 865 (2020)

    • Samsung Exynos 980 (2019)

Public Key / Asymmetric Key

In this scheme, the encryption key is available for user to use and encrypt messages. The decryption key is limited to thee party that can read the messages. This scheme is also more computationally intensive than symmetric scheme.

Cyber Attack

  • Brute force

  • Artificial intelligence (AI)



  • Invented by Satoshi Nakamoto (Japanese, claimed)

  • A growing list of blocks linked using cryptography

  • Resistant to data modification

  • Types of blockchain networks : public, private, hybrid, sidechains

  • Interest article: How do you hack a blockchain? [link by MIT Technology Review]




cyber security, security, strategies, SSL, artificial intelligence, AI, threats, I2R cybersecurity, AES, hackers, data loss, privacy, risk management, Institute for Infocomm Research, Comms, communication, NTU, science, research


#security #strategy #AI #riskmanagement #communication #i2r #singapore